動物福利措施於WTO規範之合致性─以歐盟化妝品規則為個案研究

外文標題: 
The Consistency of Animal Welfare Measures under WTO Regime: The Case of EU Cosmetics Regulation
校院系所: 
國立政治大學 國際經營與貿易研究所
指導教授: 
施文真
出版年份: 
2013年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

隨著社會與經濟文化進步,人類逐漸體認周圍自古以來用作為工具、實驗、陪伴等各種目的之動物福利問題,其中,實驗動物對於人類健康有著巨大貢獻,使我們得以在生命科學、醫學、藥學獲得快速發展,也因此,實驗動物使用數量激增,致使動物痛苦情形及其權利漸受到社會大眾之關注。
歐盟於2003年通過第2003/15/EC號針對化妝品指令之第七次修正案,確立化妝品動物實驗禁令生效時程,將依據不同種類實驗方法,分階段自2009年,及最遲於2013年3月11日達成全面禁令,亦即,屆時將不許歐盟境內成員國自外國進口及銷售經由動物實驗所生產製造之化妝品,此等規定將可能衝擊國內外化妝品製造商及代理商,而可能成為世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization, WTO)下關於動物福利之案件。
動物福利管制措施是否受到WTO相關協定規範,並是否有違WTO之規定,鑒於過往涉及動物福利案件並不多,本文認為實有加以討論之必要,且歐盟化妝品動物實驗禁令是否得成為繼EC-Asbestos案例後,再次體現WTO相關規範與保護環境、安全、健康與得兼容並蓄之案例,係頗值得探討的問題。本論文研究範圍將主要聚焦於歐盟化妝品動物實驗禁令,及可能涉及到的技術性貿易障礙協定(Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, TBT協定),以及1994年關稅暨貿易總協定(General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, GATT 1994)之合致性分析。

外文摘要: 

With the development of the society, economy and culture, people gradually realize and recognize the welfare of animals kept for companion, farming, testing and many other purposes down the ages. Among them all, animals use in research and testing make great contribution to human health, making the rapid progress in life science, medical, and pharmacy. In the meantime, there has been increasing total amount of laboratory animals. The issues of animal pain and animal rights have been brought to the attention of the public.

On the 11th March 2003, Directive 2003/15/EC was published for the 7th time amending the European Union’s cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. Directive 2003/15/EC lays down detail rules and schedules for the implementation of the testing and marketing ban and has great significance for the Cosmetics Industry. The Directive sets different phase-out time according to experiment methods. With the last phase of the ban coming into force on 11th March 2013, any cosmetics products using banned animal testing method will be prohibited throughout the whole EU territory, affecting the importation and sales of the product at issue. This may raise concerns and may further escalate this animal welfare dispute at the World Trade Organization.

Owing to the fact that animal welfare cases under WTO are rare and still developed by case law, it is hard to say whether animal welfare control measures fall within the scope of the WTO and further violates WTO obligation. This thesis brought up interpretation and analysis in TBT agreement and GATT.