由動物福利理論的宗教、科學,及倫理觀看台灣實驗動物保護

外文標題: 
On The Protection Of Experiment Animals In Taiwan From The Religious, Scientific, Ethical Perspectives Of Animal Welfare Theory
校院系所: 
輔仁大學 宗教學系
指導教授: 
莊慶信
出版年份: 
2011年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

摘要 動物倫理主要探討的是人類應如何對待動物的規範性問題,這涉及動物的道德地位的有無以及動物利益價值論述,「動物福利理論」是當代動物倫理的其中一種表述,為臺灣所認同並形之於法律作為保障動物的基本利益。由於「動物福利理論」為西方產物,在欠缺西方動物保護的歷史認知及對其內涵理解,導致臺灣實驗動物的保護流於形式。因此本研究為釐清「福利理論」保護實驗動物的立意、內涵、目的等,溯源至西方「基督宗教」、「科學」、「倫理學」與「動物實驗」之間的歷史背景與事件意義,並透過該理論觀點從臺灣「動物保護法」的實質內容切入,作一交叉比對;本研究發現,臺灣實驗動物保護機制潛藏四大問題:第一、動物保護法所保護的物種及規範對象明顯不足,且法律未能彰顯五大自由與3R原則的實質精神。第二、實驗動物倫理監督機制礙於制度設計的缺陷未能適時彰顯其監督審核的效能。第三、在實驗動物的醫療照護、督導、安樂死等,未規範必須由獸醫師參與,導致福利的執行有所疏漏。第四、實驗動物在實務的行政監督執行與罰責上與伴侶動物明顯呈現保護密度的差異。最後,筆者針對上述缺陷,提出改善之道。 關鍵詞:動物福利、動物福祉、動物倫理、實驗動物、動物實驗、3R原則、五大自由。

外文摘要: 

Abstract
Animal ethics mainly discusses the problem of how mankind treats animals, which is related to the existence of moral position of animals and the discussion of animal interest value. Animal Welfare Theory is one of the descriptions of contemporary animal ethics, which is approved by Taiwan and serves as the basic interest of protecting animals. Because “animal welfare theory” is originated from the West, the lack of understanding the history of how the westerners protected the animals and its real meaning caused the protection towards laboratory animals in Taiwan becomes unpractical. For this reason, this study traced back to the historical background and incident meaning of “Christianity”, “science”, “ethics”, and “animal experiment” in the West to explain the conception, meaning, and purpose of “welfare theory” on protecting laboratory animals. The essential contents of Animal Protection Act in Taiwan were cross-compared with the viewpoints of welfare theory. This study found that four problems were hidden in laboratory animal protection mechanism of Taiwan: First, the species and subjects protected by Animal Protection Act were significantly insufficient, and this Act was unable to manifest the essence of the five freedoms and the 3 Rs. Second, the ethics supervision mechanism of laboratory animals could not show its supervision and audit efficiency timely because of the defects of system design. Third, for the medical treatment, supervision, and euthanasia of the laboratory animals, veterinarian does not mandatorily need to participate, causing negligence when implementing the welfare. Fourth, the protection towards laboratory animals and companion animals during the implementation and punishment of administrative supervision showed significant difference. Last but not least, methods to improve the above-mentioned defects were proposed.

Keywords: Animal Welfare , Animal Ethics, experimental animals , animal experimentation, The 3 Rs, The Five Freedoms.