福山植物園之野生生物之遊憩衝擊研究-以台灣山羌及台灣獼猴為例

外文標題: 
The analysis of recreational impact on wild animals in Fushan Botanical Garden – A Case of Muntiacus reevesi micrurus and Macaca cyclopis
出版年份: 
2012年
主題類別: 
關鍵字: 
摘要: 

福山植物園有別於一般都會型的植物園,入園人數雖有總量管制措施(平日500、假日600人)及行為規範,然而管制人數之制定,主要由園區人員進行小組會議討論定量,但並無相關的研究佐證最適遊客人數與相關管制是否得當。回顧過去園區顯少針對遊客遊憩活動對於野生動物影響之研究。本研究目的為經由專家訪談選定之受遊客干擾指標物種,針對福山植物園之遊客於園區常見干擾野生動物行為,透過現地觀察,藉以瞭解遊客遇見分布樣區,並將指標物種出現頻度較高區域,設定為田野試驗樣區,藉由模擬園區常出現之遊客人數及模擬遊客行為對於園區之受遊客干擾指標物種之影響,並經由上述結果做為後續園區經營管理之參考以及相關後續研究之建議。
根據現地調查結果發現,未成年遊客大多想親近動物,常會有大聲呼喊、追逐查看等行為出現,成年人之團體遇見山羌亦有大聲驚呼等行為出現,當遊客5人時,台灣山羌及台灣獼猴皆出現受遊憩干擾第2、3級行為為最多(躲避、逃離),但並無對遊客出現乞食行為,此與其他觀察獼猴之前人研究所得結果大不相同,並於田野試驗中結果發現如下:1.高遊客量(20人)會影響山羌警戒時增加與遊客之距離,使山羌花費更多時間在警戒;2.遊客人數較少時,山羌較常表現輕度受干擾之行為(如慢速逃離);3.由分析結果顯示不同遊客量之不同遊憩干擾等級(輕度干擾、重度干擾)不會直接影響台灣山羌之活動行為;4.遊客量為5人時,於園區不同類型之步道(泥土、碎石步道)進行不同遊憩行為時會影響台灣山羌警戒、逃離之活動距離。
故本研究建議園區可建立有效之野生動物遊憩衝擊之研究測量指標,並規劃小組式(5人以下)主題性自然教育,並加以宣導規範遊客對待當地物種之行為與距離的方式,避免與野生物種直接目視的發生,藉此可讓民眾進行觀察野生之台灣山羌及台灣獼猴,進而了解野生動物保育之重要性,以及人類與自然的共存之道。

外文摘要: 

Fushan Botanical Garden distinguishes itself from typical botanical gardens by how its daily admission limit was determined. Although daily admission limit was set at 500 during weekdays and 600 during holidays, the daily admission limit is mainly determined during the park staff group meeting. Until now no relevant research has been done to determine the optimal number of daily tourists or the effectiveness of control measures. Previous research conducted in the Fushan Botanical Garden was focused mainly on animal physiological studies and no research had been conducted to assess the impact of visitor recreational activities on wildlife.
The purpose of this study was to observe species selected from interviews with experts as tourists interference indicator, with a focus on common interference wildlife behavior tourists in Fushan Botanical Garden. To understand tourists encounter distribution plots, field test plots were set to be region where indicator species appeared with higher frequency through local observation. This study simulated the number of tourists in the park and simulated how tourist behavior affected indicator species. The results of this study were used as future park operation and management reference as well as recommendations for further studies.
The results of this study showed that young visitors often shout, chase, and attempt to approach animals, and when adults visitors met Formosan muntjacs also show cry out in alarm behaviors, when the Formosan muntjacs or Formosan macaques meet 5visitors, they will show level 2 or level 3 recreation interference behavior (avoidance, flee). However, no Formosan macaques express friendly behavior (such as begging food) to visitors was observed in the Fushan Botanical Garden, which is significantly different from the behavior observed in Formosan macaques from previous studies.
According to the field experiment main finding are as below: 1.High number of tourist (group of 20 person) affected the Formosan muntjacs’ vigilance to increase with the distance of the tourists, therefore alert time of Formosan muntjacs increased; 2. Formosan muntjacs often show mild interference behavior (ex: slow fled),when the tourists is more less;3.Tthe results show the tourists recreation interference level (mild interference, severe interference) did not directly affect the behavioral activities of the Formosan muntjacs; 4. For tourist group of 5 people, different types of trails in the park (soil, gravel trail) recreation behavior affected the alert and flee distance of Formosan muntjacs.
Therefore, this study recommended the park to establish effective research measurement indicators for wildlife recreation impact and small group (less than 5 people) educational tours to allow visitors to observe wild Formosan muntjacs and Formosan macaques, to help visitors further understand the importance of wildlife conservation, and to teach them how to coexist with nature.