臺灣獼猴災害之空間調適與侷限-以高雄市柴山果農為例

外文標題: 
The Spatial Adjustments and Restrictions on the Hazard Caused By Macaca Cyclopis
出版年份: 
2010年
主題類別: 
關鍵字: 
摘要: 

我國在1978年時通過野生動物保育法,此法雖顧及生物物種的延續,但卻產生了棲息地中人們所可能受到的負面影響,如農作物受到動物的侵食而收成減少,或是人受到野生動物的攻擊等情形。本文以受到臺灣獼猴災害的柴山地區果農為例,以調適行為的方向出發,探討野生動物保育法公佈之前後,果農在柴山的生活方式與災害發生時所採取的調適行為,及其中所呈現的外在結構力操控情形。過程中採質性研究取向,以文獻回顧、參與觀察及訪談等方式,蒐集柴山果農於空間中所採用的調適行為,透過資料進行詮釋,論述果農在臺灣獼猴災害中的生活轉變及調適行為的侷限與考量。
研究發現野保法公佈前,人類是柴山空間的支配者,種作雖然辛勞,但只要付出努力就會有所收穫,臺灣獼猴對果農而言是一項資源。野保法公佈後,人類失去柴山的空間支配權,臺灣獼猴成為一種災害,使得收成減少。對災害進行因應過程,果農有了持續種作、棄耕、轉型等調適行為:有些果農顧及轉業困難與傳承哺育任務而持續種作,為了顧及成本及法令的限制,他們多採用沖天炮與隔離網等方式防猴;有些果農在種作環境惡劣、收成不敷成本以及年紀老去的狀況下,選擇棄耕;有些果農則在儲備足夠資本後徹底轉型,以服務業重新生活。果農的調適行為表面上雖是由果農決定,但事實上卻受到國家機器、經濟條件及環保人士等外在結構力量所限制,導致果農的期盼與實際狀況有所落差。為了爭取生存的權利,果農以遊行、司法訴訟等各種行動向政府的政策進行抗爭,但卻因為土地所有權非果農所有、法令的重重限制與環保人士的介入,而使得臺灣獼猴災害帶來的衝擊仍未解決,也因此造成柴山地區產業與地方社會逐漸沒落。

外文摘要: 

Taiwan passed the Wildlife Conservation Law in 1978. Although this law took into account the continuation of species, it had produced negative impacts upon the people living in the habitat. For instance, the corps was reductive by the invading of the animals and people were attacked by wild animals. The research took the fruit farmers who suffered from the hazard of Macaca cyclopis in Mt. Chai area. It aimed to investigate the lifestyle of the fruit farmers in Mt. Chai and the adjustment they made when the disaster struck them around the passage of the Wildlife Conservation Law. It also attempted to present the external driving forces beyond the Mt. Chai. The methods to carry out this study were using the qualitative approach by literature review, participant observation and interview. The data were gathered to interpret the changing life of the fruit farmers who suffered from the hazard of Macaca cyclopis, and the restrictions and considerations of the adjustment.
The researcher found that human beings were the dominators of Mt. Chai area before the passage of the Wildlife Conservation Law. Though the fruit planting was a hard work, it seemed to be as they sow, so shall they reap. Macaca cyclopis did help for the fruit farmers. After the publishing of the Wildlife Conservation Law, people lost domination over this area. Macaca cyclopis became a hazard, they decreased the harvest. The fruit farmers’ responses to the hazard were carrying on the cultivation, abandoning the planting and transforming. Some fruit farmers carried on their jobs because of the difficulties of changing jobs and making a living. For the restrictions of the law and the cost, they used firecrackers and nets to keep the monkeys away. Some gave up the cultivating under the situations of poor environment, bad harvest and aging. Others changed their careers to the service industries after having adequate finance resources. The adjustment of the fruit farmers was decided by themselves theoretically, there really were still many restrictions for the fruit farmers, such as the state apparatus, economic conditions and environmental forces. That illustrated a major difference between the farmers’ expectations and the practical reality. To fight for the right to survival, farmers protested to the government by the parades, judicial proceedings and other actions. Because of problems with land rights, the restrictions of law and the intervention of environmental activists, they still didn’t find the solutions. The hazard of Macaca cyclopis isn’t resolved. Therefore, it caused a decline of local industries