野生與圈養台灣獼猴敵對行為與和好之比較

外文標題: 
A Comparison of Agonistic Behavior and Reconciliation in Free-ranging and Captive Formosan Macaques (Macaca cyclopis)
出版年份: 
2006年
主題類別: 
關鍵字: 
摘要: 

本研究之目的在探討圈養與野生台灣獼猴的敵對與和好行為,比較其在圈養與野外環境中的差異,並與馬來猴系中的馬來猴、恆河猴與日本猴相比較,以推論台灣獼猴的優勢模式。觀察方法為社群的掃瞄取樣、成年台灣獼猴攻擊行為的隨機取樣,及對成年台灣獼猴的焦點取樣及衝突後與配對對照之焦點取樣。
圈養台灣獼猴表現敵對行為的頻度是野生台灣獼猴的2.5倍,尤其在敵意與臣服行為有顯著差異(P < 0.05)。威嚇是圈養與野生台灣獼猴最常見的攻擊方式,占攻擊行為的52%(圈養)至72%(野外)。圈養之成年雌猴的位序愈高,威嚇與敵意頻度愈高,臣服頻度則愈低。野生台灣獼猴表現臣服行為在性別間有顯著差異(P = 0.02)。圈養與野生台灣獼猴被攻擊者表現立即臣服之比例相當高(82.1% - 89.0%),但表現對立攻擊之比例則低(9.1% - 15.9%)。
成年台灣獼猴野外的和好傾度平均為14.3%(n = 25),而圈養則為19.6%(n = 16)。在成年雄猴攻擊成年雌猴與成年雌猴間的攻擊中,被攻擊者在衝突後發生友好的比例受圈養或野外的影響。圈養與野生成年台灣獼猴在衝突後表現友好的比例皆受餵食的影響(P < 0.05)。成猴在衝突後的第1分鐘內發生第一次友好行為的比例為最高。圈養與野生台灣獼猴在衝突後與配對對照期間主要以理毛方式和好,且偏好在衝突後期間和好的比例遠高於在配對對照期間。此外,圈養與野生台灣獼猴吸引配對的比例皆高於分散配對的比例,至於和好傾度則不受親屬關係的影響。最後,本研究結果顯示台灣獼猴與馬來猴系獼猴相近,支持系統發生假說,判斷台灣獼猴屬於專制優勢模式。

外文摘要: 

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the agonistic behaviors and reconciliation in captive and free-ranging Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis). The dominance style of Formosan macaques was compared with long-tailed, rhesus and Japanese macaques. I have used scan, focal sampling and ad libitum on aggressions of adult macaques. I have recorded post-conflict (PC) focal samplings on victims and compared those with matched control (MC) focal samplings.
Agonistic behaviors had significantly higher frequency in captive than in free-ranging Formosan macaques. The frequencies of hostile and submission were significantly higher in captive than in free-ranging Formosan macaques. The captive adult females of higher rank had higher frequency of threat and hostile, and lower frequency of submission. Threat was the most frequent aggression (52-72%) expressed by both the captive and free-ranging adult monkeys. The victims in captive and free-ranging Formosan macaques usually submitted immediately after aggression (82-89%). The proportion of counter aggression in captive and free-ranging Formosan macaques were relative low (9-16%).
The aqerage conciliatory tendency for adult Formosan macaques was 14.3% to 19.6%. The affiliative contacts in PC and MC in captive and free-ranging Formosan macaques were striking that both preferred grooming. The Formosan macaques significantly reconciled more during PC than MC period both in captive and free-ranging conditions. In addition, both had significantly more attracted than dispersed PC-MC pairs. The conciliatory tendencies in captive and free-ranging Formosan macaques were similar regardless of kin and non-kin partners. This study indicated that Formosan macaques were close to the macaques of Fascicularis group. Therefore, Formosan macaques had a despotic dominance style as suggested by Phylogenetic hypotheses.