比較歐美對實驗動物保護之倫理規範

外文標題: 
Comparison on Ethical Regulation of Animal Experimentation between the EU and U.S.
校院系所: 
中原大學財經法律研究所
指導教授: 
李崇僖
出版年份: 
2015年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

動物權於我國,非屬法制上所承認之用語,我國對於動物的保護觀點,僅係因人類對待動物之看法隨著時代潮流而有所改善罷了。我國對動物權之觀念,是動物福利思想之轉化,不代表承認動物於我國實定法上具有「權利主體」之地位。但當我國社會大眾對動物福利之觀感有所改變時,即意味著我國動物福利相關之法律制度亦應有所變遷。若我國法律對於動物之觀念仍維持在傳統價值觀念上(例如:動物為人類之所有物,可以對其為任何想做的事),縱使我國日後依循國際潮流賦予動物權或動物福利時,仍不足以使我國對動物之利益造成影響。
在動物權主義者提倡之眾多動物保護議題中,實驗用動物之福利和保護係目前國際社會潮流及各國法制努力改進之方向。自古以來,人類為了自己的利益為醫學和商業發展,透過各種繁雜的動物實驗來確保自身安全,卻自私地忽略了可能對動物所帶來的傷害。據統計,目前每年約有上億的動物被用來作為實驗室裡的研究工具,雖已有對動物實驗之行為之規定,但卻沒有詳細且完善的法規制度和規範。透過3R原則之提倡、替代方式之發展和社會大眾對動物實驗之看法,更讓我們開始對實驗用動物之使用方法、過程和必要性為檢討。
從邊沁的平等考慮理論到辛格的效益主義,從英國的馬丁法到歐盟化妝品動物實驗禁令,近幾十年來,西方世界社會除就動物實驗之倫理道德觀點為探討外,更希望藉由法規制定之方式,對研究人員之研究行為為規範,並促進實驗用動物之福利提升。因此,無論係在歐盟或美國,皆透過法律規範或行政管理之方式,努力在實驗用動物之福利議題為改進;而目前世界上許多國家(例如:澳洲、紐西蘭、加拿大、印度、以色列及巴西……等國家),亦開始就動物實驗之法律議題為探討。
史懷哲醫生曾說過:「我們需要一種包括動物在內的無邊界的道德。」當人類為了自身利益而無窮盡的發展科技研究時,對動物所造成之權益損害之時,我們是否能毫無愧疚的面對這些動物?為有助於我國未來動物實驗法制之發展,本論文主要將就歐美動物權及動物實驗之道德倫理議題,及目前歐盟及美國關於動物實驗之主要發展方向─動物實驗審查委員會制度,化妝品動物實驗之禁令及動物實驗替代方式之發展,為介紹和探討並加以評估。

外文摘要: 

Animal right is not an official diction in our legal systems in Taiwan. The reason why we began to pay attention to the issue of animal welfare was due to a public trend, not because our legislature admits that animals have the right to be protected. When the general public in Taiwan has gradually changed their attitude to animals from the traditional view of custom value, such as considering animals as belongings of people, to the value of animal welfare and protection, we should also change our current animal legislations according to the current public perspective.
They are plenty of discussions on the issue of animal right in the world. A lot of animal advocates in Western countries focus on improving regulations in animal testing to ensure the welfare of experimental animals. For a long time, people utilized animals in medical and commercial tests for ensuring the safety of their commercial products. As such, various methods with different complexities are used in animal testing; however, all kinds of harms to animals, which we might cause, are ignored. According to reliable sources, more than hundred millions of animals are used as research subjects in laboratories in the world each year, however only a few legislations are established to protect them, such as the 3R principles (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Based on the 3R principles, we should start to review the ways we used to experimental animals and rethink in the perspective of the animal welfares to develop alternative ways for animal testing.
Furthermore, theories of animal welfare had been expanded from the equal consideration theory of Jeremy Bentham to the utilitarianism of Peter Singer. For several decades, western countries have already made many attempts to improve the animal welfare of experimental animals by amending animal welfare laws to regulate the researchers who used animals for testing. For example, the regulations of animal welfare had made a huge progress from the Martin Act in the UK to the cosmetic animal testing ban in the EU. Governments in the EU or in the U.S continue working on the issue of experimental animals. Governments in many countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, India, Israel and Brazil…etc., also start discussing the regulations of animal testing.
Albert Schweitzer said:” We need a boundless ethic which will include the animal also.” When the benefits that people earn from the technical developments are compared to the enormous damages that we cause to experimental animals, do we have any guilty feelings at all for these achievements? In order to provide a help to the Taiwanese government and legislator to establish animal experimentation regulations in the future, this thesis is focusing on the animal right and ethical regulations, and introducing and analyzing the recent ethical trend of the animal experimentation in the EU and the U.S., such as the establishment of IACUC in U.S., the cosmetic animal testing ban in the EU, and the development of alternative testing methods. (Actually IACUC has been established in many universities in Taiwan and 3R principles are enforced, if their research funds are from NSC.)