永續發展農業及野生動物保育--以秀姑巒溪流域雁鴨問題為例

校院系所: 
國立東華大學自然資源管理研究所
指導教授: 
徐國士
程建中
出版年份: 
2000年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

野生動物危害作物的問題不論國外國內不斷地發生,可以預期的,在人類對土地需求越來越強烈的同時,必然會破壞原有的動物棲地,使野生動物危害的問題持續下去。屬遷移性的雁鴨所產生的危害問題在國外已歷經了數十年,台灣近年來也開始重視此一問題。由於處理此類問題在本省方才起步,往往只用驅逐、毒殺、捕捉等方式去面對雁鴨危害的問題,無法根本地減少危害的損失。因此,本研究以為對於雁鴨危害的問題應以系統性、整合性的體系來進行管理。首先,雁鴨生存、生殖需求,進行棲地復育;其次,為減少雁鴨的危害行為,進行危害防治技術,減少農作物對雁鴨之吸引力,進行農田管理;最後,為長久監測此問題,同時也必需進行族群數量監控,評估危害量及防治成效之評估制度同時,因為雁鴨是一可利用之自然資源,例如:進行遊憩資源之規劃開發……等等。所以對雁鴨危害農作物問題做一整合性之管理,乃為當今面對野生動物危害農作物問題之重要管理方式。
本研究主要目的為:
一、 針對目前雁鴨危害農作物問題嚴重之秀姑巒溪流域探討其形成雁鴨 危害之可能原因。
二、 對雁鴨危害農作物問題擬出全面、整合性的管理方法,包括瞭解秀姑巒溪流域雁鴨危害水稻田之可能成因。
三、 危害防治技術方面,試驗三種目前農民使用之農藥對雁鴨忌避之成效,並分析忌避劑施用效益及成本。
四、 藉此一研究方式,擬對雁鴨危害水稻田問題,提出一整合性的防治體系,以自然資源永續利用為目標,減少雁鴨危害造成的損失,並使雁鴨數量維持最適族群狀態,進而利用此一資源。
據訪談結果及文獻所知,秀姑巒溪流域雁鴨危害農作物問題之成因可能為溪流生態之改變、棲地減少。忌避劑試驗則以福瑞松之效果最好,施用方式尚可考慮以農民使用方便配合改進,使成本降低。
雁鴨危害管理之問題並非用單一方法即可得到妥善結果的,必需結合所有可行的方法規劃施行,並綜合考量其可行性,更重要的是必需有一危害評估及監測系統,讓危害量能夠得到監測。而此一管理體系所需要之科學很廣泛,往往需要生物學、生態學、經濟學、化學……等人員的投入,才能發展出一個更完整之危害管理體系。

外文摘要: 

No matter overseas or our country, something, which we can except, is the problem of the wild life harm the crops never stop happen.
Simultaneously, people need the land become strongly. It would be break original habitat. Let the problem keep going.
The migrating ducks product the harmful problem that experience for several decade in overseas. The government and the authorities start to attach importance to the cause.
Due to such question a deal of the beginning in Taiwan, only use the ways that is deporting, killing with poison, and catching …etc face the problem. It couldn’t solve and reduce the harm fundamentally.
So, this study advocated the problem of ducks harm should be manage systematically and integrate into the organization.
First, developing to revive the habitat for ducks reproduction and subsistence. Second, reducing the behavior of harm from ducks processing the technique of prevention and cure, decreasing the crops attract the ducks and proceeding the management of farm. Finally, it is necessary to control the number of ducks in the meanwhile to estimate the extent of injury and assess the system of the prophylaxis and treatment for monitoring the problem long time.
At the same time, one of the natural resources to use is ducks. For example, proceeding the project of tourism…etc. Today, to draft an entire management is the important for the wild animal harm of crops.
The purpose of this research:
1. It is aimed at the extent of injury from ducks in Hsuikuluan Basin and to probe into the reason and how to form.
2. Drafting the entire and whole management to solve the problem of ducks harm the crops. It’s include to understand the possible reason cause to harm paddy rice in Hsuikuluan Basin.
3. Aspect of harm of prevention and treatment, we use the three kinds of pesticide to take the test for the pesticide affection to cope with ducks And to analysis the capital and the benefit by repellents.
By the way of this study to find out the issue of ducks harm the paddy rice, and provide a synthetic and entire prevention and treatment system. The goal is recycling perpetually, reducing the harm from ducks, and keep the number of ducks population to be good for ecological balance, then use this resource further.
According to we know that the result of investigation and the records that the main reasons of ducks harm the crops may be the environment changed and habitat decreased in Hsuikuluan Basin.
In the test of repellents, especially Phorate are the most effective. We can consider following the farmer’s way to operate capital and improve to be the useful method. Using the low capital to do the most effective way.
To solve the problem can’t use only one way, and it needs to combine all the projects and consider synthetically which can or not. The most important to do is to locate the monitored and appraised system and make sure perniciousness that can be monitored.
Further this managerial system needs a large-scale science. It includes biology, ecology, economics, and chemistry…Etc.A lot of professional experts is necessary to develop an entire system of the harm.