玉山國家公園台灣黑熊之腸道寄生蟲

外文標題: 
Fecal Parasite Profile of Formosan Black Bears (Ursus thibetanus formosanus) in Yushan National Park
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
黃美秀 博士
連一洋 博士
出版年份: 
2013年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

近年來由於人為活動頻繁,全球生物多樣性急遽下降,導致許多新興與再現傳染疾病的增加。保育醫學(conservation medicine)因應而生,目標在於維持生態系統的平衡,並結合獸醫學與保育生物學的專業知識,深入探討造成野生動物族群變動的疾病議題與環境因子之間的相關性,並對野生動物與環境進行長期疾病監控與研究。本研究目的在於建立玉山國家公園台灣黑熊(Ursus thibetanus formosanus)腸道寄生蟲之基礎資料,以了解各種寄生蟲感染情形,及探討對宿主的潛在影響。於玉山國家公園大分地區,自2008年至2012年青剛櫟結果季期間(10月至隔年2月)收集台灣黑熊排遺樣本,利用直接塗抹法、飽和食鹽水浮游法、仔蟲培養、隱胞子蟲抗酸染色、蟲卵計數等方法,將發現的蟲體、蟲卵及仔蟲以型態學分類方法鑑定種類。本研究共分析220個排遺樣本,共檢出10種腸道寄生蟲,檢出率為77.3%。其中包括八種線蟲(nematode)77.3%(170/220),一種原蟲(protozoa)2.7%(6/220),一種絛蟲(cestoda)0.5%(1/220)。各蟲種感染率以蛔蟲(Baylisascaris transfuga)感染狀況最為普遍(65.5%),接著依序是糞桿線蟲(Strongyloides sp.)(11.4%)、鉤蟲(hookworm)(9.6%)、毛圓線蟲(Trichostrongylus sp.)(3.7%)、腸結節蟲(Oesophagostomum sp.)(3.6%)、隱胞子蟲(Cryptosporidium sp.)(2.7%)、毛細線蟲(Capillaria sp.)(1.8%),其餘未知2種線蟲以及絛蟲等蟲卵皆只出現一次,感染率皆為0.5%。本研究結果將提供探究台灣黑熊寄生蟲疾病的基礎,其中蛔蟲、絛蟲以及隱胞子蟲皆有報告指出為人畜共通的寄生蟲傳染性疾病。建議未來持續性資料之收集,以探討寄生蟲感染模式在不同季節和地區的變化趨勢,以及大分地區共域物種與黑熊族群之間寄生蟲感染模式,以瞭解寄生蟲感染的機制。

外文摘要: 

Due to the increading human disturbance in recent years, the global biodiversity has been declining rapidly, along with all kinds of the emerging and reemerging diseases. The Conservation Medicine, which combined with veterinary science and conservation biology, aims to maintain the ecosystem balance through understanding the realationship between the population dynamics casuesd by diseases and environmental factors. Investigating effects of zoonotic parasite diseases on the public health and wildlife for long-term is one of the important task of the conservation medicineThis aimed to investigate the intestinal parasite fauna and infections of endangered Formosan black bears (Ursus thibetanus formosanus) in Dafan of Yushan National Park in Taiwan. We applied methods ofdirect smear, flotation, culture and modified carbol fuchsin stain to examin 220 fecal samples, were collected in Dafan in the acorn seasons (October -February) during 2008-2012. Eight parasites species were identified and two nematode species were unidentified. The total parasitic infection rate is 77.3%. The parasite prevalence varied by species: Baylisascaris transfuga (65.5%), Strongyloides sp. (11.4%), hookworm (9.6%), Trichostrongylus sp. (3.7%), Oesophagostomum sp. (3.6%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2.7%), Capillaria sp. (1.8%) and Taenia sp. (0.5%). According to the previous research, Baylisascaris transfuga, Taenia sp., and Cryptosporidium sp. were of zoonotic parasite diseases. This study contributes the formost information of parasitic diseases for Formosan black bears. We further suggest to explore the parasitic infection patterns in different seasons and areas, and to investigate the sympatric species with wild bear population to understand the patterns of host-parasite relationfor the future study.