國人對於台灣黑熊保育之願付價值估計

外文標題: 
Estimating The Taiwanese Willingness To Pay For Conserving The Formosan Black Bear
校院系所: 
中興大學應用經濟學系所
指導教授: 
曾偉君
出版年份: 
2013年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

台灣近幾十年來,由於經濟活動頻繁以及自然環境過度開發,人為活動逐漸地往山林發展,使得本來數量就很稀少的野生動物,因為棲息地受到人為干擾而族群大量縮減,且存在已久的非法狩獵也持續地威脅著野生動物。最遺憾的例子就是2013年4月時,台美的台灣雲豹研究團隊正式宣布台灣雲豹已經絕跡。而另一個值得注意的大型物種就是台灣黑熊,目前全島台灣黑熊族群數量仍不明,但其族群數量非常不樂觀,而早在1989年時,依野生動物保護法將台灣黑熊列為瀕臨絕種的動物,意指台灣黑熊的數量降到危險標準之下,其生存已面臨危機。

若是能估計出台灣黑熊的價值,將大大有助於相關政府與民間組織和國人對其之重視,並進而催生相關措施來保育台灣黑熊,因此本研究利用評估非市場財的方法-條件評估法,並用問卷調查來取得資料,評估台灣民眾對於保育台灣黑熊所願付的金額。透過建立一個假設性的市場,採封閉式詢價中的單界二元選擇法及雙界二元選擇法,估計出台灣民眾每人每年的願付價值介於新台幣1,005元至新台幣1,270元之間,更進一步的計算出全台灣民眾每年之總願付價值介於新台幣136億3,100萬元至新台幣172億2,500萬元之間。

台灣黑熊是台灣陸地上最大型的動物,且是唯一台灣原生的熊類(台灣特有種)
,同時也是台灣最大的食肉性動物,具有獨特的生態、保育及文化的價值,政府應該正視自然環境保育的議題,使自然資源得以永續發展,否則野生動物生存會面臨極大的危機。

外文摘要: 

In recent decades, wildlife in Taiwan has been threatened by economic activities, over-exploitation of the natural environment, the development of the mountains, habitat disturbance, and illegal hunting. These threat the existence of many animal species that already have low populations. The most regrettable example is the Formosa Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa brachyura) has become extinct announced by Taiwan-US research team on April, 2013.

Another large species, the Formosan black bear (Ursus thibetanus formosanus) is noteworthy. Currently, the population of Taiwan black bear is still unknown but is not optimistic. As early as 1989, the Wildlife Protection Act listed Formosan black bear as an endangered species, meaning that the number of Formosan black bear falls below the standard and its existence has been facing a crisis.

Estimating the value of the Formosan black bear will show its importance to the government, non-governmental organizations, and general public. Eventually could induce relevant measures to conserve the Formosan black bear. Therefore, this study uses the contingent valuation method (CVM) and information obtained from questionnaires to evaluate the Taiwanese people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of the Formosan black bear. I create a hypothetical market and use closed-ended single-bounded binary choice method and double-bounded dichotomous choice method to estimate the WTP. The personal per year WTP of Taiwanese people ranges from NT 1,005 to NT 1,270. The annual total WTP of Taiwanese people is between NT13.6 billion and NT 17.2 billion.

Formosan black bear is the largest land animal in Taiwan, the largest carnivorous animal in Taiwan, and the only native bear in Taiwan (endemic). It has a variety of values including ecology, conservation, and cultural values. The government should pay much attention to conservation of the natural environment in order to maintain sustainable natural resources. Otherwise, the survival of wildlife will have great risks.