原住民與都市住民對台灣黑熊價值觀之探討

外文標題: 
The study of indigenes and citizen's value toward Formosan black bear(Ursus thibetanus formosanus)
校院系所: 
國立臺灣師範大學生命科學研究所
指導教授: 
王穎
出版年份: 
2007年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

了解社會大眾對野生動物的價值觀,制訂有效率的經營管理方式於近年來益發受重視。台灣黑熊(Ursus thibetanus formosanus)其具有相當之經濟價值,為民眾以往獵捕及利用的對象,亦為造成其瀕臨絕種的主要原因,故了解民眾對台灣黑熊的價值觀有其必要。研究者於2006年10月至2007年9月針對原住民(泰雅族、太魯閣族及布農族)與都市住民(台北市、台中市及高雄市)進行台灣黑熊的價值觀調查,先期以開放性問題進行訪談,以訪談內容及參考文獻設計封閉式問卷,共計訪查1267人。針對台灣黑熊價值觀量表進行因素分析後,分析出四個因素,分別為「人性道德」、「否定」、「生態美學」及「實用」。影響價值觀之變項程度依序為對動物喜好程度、教育程度、族群、與戶外活動喜好程度等。而價值觀與保育觀點及捐款行為有顯著影響(p<0.001),研究結果顯示教育程度低、不喜歡動物及不喜歡戶外休閒活動的民眾可能會較不支持台灣黑熊之保育。原住民與都市住民皆認為台灣黑熊需要保護,但都市住民認為需要保護的程度顯著較原住民為高(p<0.001)。原住民相較於都市住民而言,「人性道德」分數顯著較低,「否定」分數顯著較高(p<0.001),而原住民中又以女性與年紀較大者「否定」分數最高。另外,高雄市地區受訪者其「實用」價值分數顯著較高(p=0.003),成為台灣黑熊之潛在消費地區可能性較高。

外文摘要: 

In order to establish effective ways for manageing wildlife, the relationship between wildlifes and people in conserving is getting more attention in recent years. In Taiwan, the economic value of Formosan black bear(Ursus thibetanus formosanus) is the main reason of them being hunted by native Taiwanese and thus endangered. In case to understand the indigene’s value toward Formosan black bear, this study s investigated the values of Formosan black bear held by native Taiwanese (Tayal, Truku and Bunun) and residents in urban area (Taipei City, Taichung City and Kaohsiung City) by using questionnaires from October 2006 to September 2007 on 1267 people in total. Open-ended survey was first administered in the pilot study, and then the results combined with references from literature review were used to design the close-ended survey for further research. The results shows that in average 86.24% of both indigenes and citizen consider Formosan black bear should be under protection. After conducting factor analysis on respondent-to- Formosan black bear questionnaires, four factors were concluded, ‘humanistic-moralistic value’, ‘negativistic value’, ‘ecoligistic-aesthetic value’ and ‘utilitarian value’. The variables that influence the value of Formosan black bear held by people are average wildlife acquainted degree, educational level, race and outdoor activity acquainted degree in significance ranking. Therefore this research shows the value of Formosan black bear held by people is highly related to their view on conservation management and donation behavior (p<0.001), therefore this study conclude this three specific groups (people with weak educational background, who dislike animals, who dislike outdoor activities) might not support the conservation of Formosan black bear and even hold opposite opinions. However, the aim of conserve Formosan black bear can be achieved by providing focal guidance. In addition, the highest ‘utilitarian value’ score of p=0.003 is presented in Kaohsiung City, which shows this area might become a potential consumption area of Formosan black bear. More conservation guidance should be given out in this area to prevent further market demand.