玉山國家公園台灣黑熊之生態學研究

外文標題: 
ECOLOGY OF ASIATIC BLACK BEARS (Ursus thibetanus formosanus) IN YUSHAN NATIONAL PARK, TAIWAN
校院系所: 
國立東華大學自然資源管理研究所
指導教授: 
吳海音
出版年份: 
2004年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

本研究於2001年1月至2003年5月間,以無線電追蹤研究玉山國家公園東部園區台灣黑熊(Ursus thibetanus formosanus)的活動範圍與活動模式,於步道、小徑上收集其活動痕跡及排遺,利用自動相機輔助記錄黑熊的蹤跡及調查研究區內台灣黑熊潛在哺乳類食物來源之相對豐度,並初步探討無線電與人造衛星追蹤於台灣山區中使用的效益與準確度。調查期間利用無線電地面追蹤8隻台灣黑熊,其中2成年公熊有較完整的活動範圍與活動模式資料,兩個體的活動範圍各為10平方公里(n=15)與8.8平方公里(n=13),且有重疊的現象。其全日活動模式皆為日行性。台灣黑熊排遺分析(n=210)發現,黑熊的食物大部分為植物莖葉與果實,而種類會隨各季環境中可提供的資源而有不同。研究觀察發現除了青剛櫟結果量之外,人為活動可能也會影響黑熊秋冬季的活動。2002年9月至2003年2月在研究區內人造林、闊葉林1、闊葉林2、松櫟林與杉櫟林五種植被類型中利用自動相機調查黑熊的分布,在相機有效工作時數14218.4個小時中得到有效照片772張,其中黑熊的記錄有22筆,出現於闊葉林2、松櫟林與杉櫟林中。自動相機資料也應用於分析台灣黑熊潛在哺乳類食物來源之分布,其中台灣山羌與台灣長鬃山羊在5種植被類型中皆有出現,其出現頻度於五種植被類型中無顯著差異,台灣水鹿於五種植被類型中之出現頻度有顯著差異。無線電追蹤之測試結果顯示,台灣山區中影響無線電追蹤收訊的最大因素為追蹤器與測者之相對位置,成功收訊比率與誤差角度的分布皆以相對坡面最佳,背向坡面最差。以相對坡面測站而言,稜線測站與坡面測站對坡面設點的角度誤差最小。追蹤器之角度誤差分布以溪谷設點最大,稜線次之,坡面最小。定位所得平均角度誤差很大(44.0°±47.9°),其原因可能為地形造成的影響。Argos人造衛星追蹤測試資料結果顯示地形影響定位點LC值為1-3與所有定位點數之比例,其中平地設點與稜線設點高於坡面與溪谷設點;PTT追蹤器的設定海拔高度與實際位置海拔高度差會影響距離誤差。GPS人造衛星追蹤測試之定位率為73﹪,山區設點平均誤差(184±263m)大於平地測站平均誤差(51±9m)。地形與樹冠遮蔽度似乎對定位率沒有影響。比較三種追蹤方式於台灣山區之使用效益,地形對VHF無線電地面追蹤與Argos人造衛星追蹤的影響較大,較有可能造成取樣的偏差;GPS人造衛星追蹤之距離距離誤差遠小於VHF無線電地面追蹤與Argos人造衛星追蹤。三種追蹤方式中,GPS人造衛星追蹤是比較適宜應用於台灣黑熊的棲地使用,而其他兩者的誤差雖然較大,但小於台灣黑熊的可能移動距離,或可應用於了解台灣黑熊的移動或活動範圍。

外文摘要: 

I studied the home range, activity pattern and food habits of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus formosanus) and the relative abundance of their prey base from January 2001 to May 2003 in Yushan National Park, Taiwan. I also tested the performance of VHF and satellite radiotelemetry systems in the mountainous area of Taiwan. The radio-tracking data of 2 male adult bears between January and September 2001 showed that their home ranges were 10 (n=15) and 8.8 km2 (n=13), respectively, with an overlapping area at Walami. The activity pattern of the 2 bears was mainly diurnal in spring and summer. Scat analysis(n=210) showed that bears’ diet changed seasonally and forbs and fruits were the predominant food items. The movement of bears was affected by acorn production in fall and winter, and probably by human activity as well. I used infrared-triggered cameras to assess the occurrence of bears and the relative abundance of their prey base (muntjac, serow, sambar and wild boar) in 5 vegetation types from September 2002 to February 2003. In 14218.4 camera hours, bears were recorded in 3 vegetation types for 22 times. Muntjacs and serows were found in all vegetation types, while wild boars and sambars were recorded in 4 and 3 types, respectively. There was significant difference in the relative abundance of sambars among 5 vegetation types. The performance of VHF radiotelemetry was mostly affected by the relative positions of transmitters and receivers. Deviations between the true and the estimated directional bearings were large(44.0°±47.9°), which were affected by the rugged terrain. The test result of Argos satellite radiotelemetry showed that topography and the accuracy of altitude setting of the PTT would affect the location quality. The GPS location fix rate was 73%. The location errors were larger in the mountainous area(184±263m) than those in flat terrain(51±9m). Topography and canopy cover did not affect the GPS location fix rate. Comparing the performance of the 3 radio-tracking systems in the study area, I suggest that GPS satellite tracking can be applied to habitat study of Formosan black bears, while VHF and Argos radiotelemetry are more suitable for movement tracking and home range study.