壽山台灣獼猴之理毛行為

外文標題: 
Grooming Behavior of Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan
校院系所: 
國立中山大學 生物科學系研究所
指導教授: 
徐芝敏
出版年份: 
2009年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

本研究是探討高雄市壽山地區台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)成年雌猴之社會理毛在親屬、位序、年齡與季節變化之關係,主要的研究對象是C群與Cd群成年獼猴。從2000年8月到2003年2月止,歷經3個交配季與2個非交配季,共188個工作天,約1248.8個小時。實際記錄C群660.6小時,Cd群為244.5小時。研究期間C群成年雄猴有8-13隻,成年雌猴有14-15隻;Cd群成年雄猴有1-3隻,成年雌猴2-4隻。研究成年雌猴區分為高低位階及老年(>13歲)和年輕(5-12歲)。另於理毛對中,分別判定二者相對高低位序以及親屬或非親屬的關係。而成年雄猴則區分為群內雄猴與周邊雄猴兩類型。 成年雌猴個體之異體理毛活動佔本身日間行為的37.62% ± 13.59%(n = 15)。在台灣獼猴社會理毛活動中,成年雌猴給予嬰、幼猴理毛多於接受者(p 0.1)。且群內雄猴比周邊雄猴有較多的理毛伙伴,其主要的理毛伙伴為成年雌猴。周邊雄猴則比群內雄猴有較多的雄猴理毛伙伴。另外在交配季,低階雄猴與優勢雄猴的理毛對中常為被理毛者,但是在非交配季則為理毛者。雄猴之間的衝突行為較常發生在交配季,且周邊雄猴間的衝突頻度是群內雄猴間的1.8倍(p 0.1)。 因此,壽山台灣獼猴社群成年雌猴的社會理毛應該是以親屬選擇為主要基礎。無親屬關係成年雌猴的社會理毛則可能藉由互惠理毛達到結盟或提升位序之目的。而成年雄猴與成年雌猴的社會理毛在交配季多於在非交配季,此應該與雄猴的交配策略有關。而周邊雄猴比群內雄猴有較多的雄猴理毛伙伴,則可能是以結盟為目的。

外文摘要: 

I have investigated the social grooming in kinship, rank, age and seasonal change among adult female Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) that inhabit Mt. Longevity, Kaohsiung. The major study groups were C and Cd groups. Field observations were conducted from August 2000 to February 2003 covering three mating seasons and two non-mating seasons. The observations covered a total of 188 work days including 1248.8 hours. I actually had recorded C group for 660.6 hours, and Cd group for 244.5 hours. During my study, C group consisted of 8-13 adult males and 14-15 adult females, while group Cd had 1-3 adult males and 2-4 adult females. In order to analyze grooming data, I divided 15 adult females into sub-groups such as dominant/ submissive groups, old (>13) /young age (5-12), relative higher/lower ranking and related/unrelated. I have also divided adult males into troop-males and periphery males. Adult female allo-grooming activities accounted for 37.62% ± 13.59 (n = 15) of the behaviors in the daytime. I also found that adult females grooming infants and juveniles were greater than received from them (p 0.1). Moreover, troop males had higher grooming partners than periphery males. Major grooming partners of troop males were adult females regardless of the seasons. Subordinate males were mostly the receivers in the grooming dyads with dominant males in the mating seasons, but the relationships changed during non-mating seasons. Agonistic interactions occurred mainly during mating seasons and its frequency among periphery males was 1.8 times of troop males (p 0.1). The results indicated that social grooming among adult females took place more often during non-mating seasons, and more often in kin-related females than unrelated females. Moreover, the dominant females were likely to groom related females. Therefore social grooming among kin-related females may reinforce relationships while reciprocal grooming of unrelated females may serve to form alliance or ranking promotion in the social group. On the other hand, social grooming between adult male and female macaques more frequent in mating seasons than in non-mating seasons. This showed that adult male Formosan macaques employed complex strategies to achieve reproductive success. Nonetheless, the periphery males had more male grooming partners than troop males did which seemingly to enhance male coalitions.