壽山地區台灣獼猴的相遇行為

外文標題: 
Intergroup Encounters in Formosan Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan
校院系所: 
國立中山大學 生物科學系研究所
指導教授: 
徐芝敏
出版年份: 
2009年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

本研究探討台灣獼猴社群間的相遇行為、雌雄猴參與社群相遇與影響社群間優勢位階的因素。探討靈長類社群相遇時雌雄的策略共有四個假說,包括雌性食物資源防禦假說、雄性交配防禦假說、雄性食物資源防禦假說及雄性殺嬰吸引交配假說。野外觀察自2008年3月到2009年3月,在臺灣獼猴社群間相遇時,以掃描取樣與焦點取樣來記錄社群個體的性別、年齡層、位階及行為,並記錄相遇持續時間及社群間距離 。 台灣獼猴社群間互動的勝率與社群成猴加亞成雄猴數量呈顯著線性關係(P

外文摘要: 

Formosan macaques were observed to collect data on intergroup encounters, the strategies of male and female and the factors which influence inter-group dominance relationships. Four hypotheses exist to explain the strategies of male and female in inter-group encounter, including female resource defense, male mate defense, male resource defense and male mate attraction via infanticide. Behavioral observations were recorded from March 2008 to March 2009. Data collections included scan sampling and focal sampling of troop members which participated in encounter, containing their sex, age, rank and behavior. Duration of inter-group interaction and distances between two troops were also recorded. There is a significant positive relationship between chance of winning and troop number (AM+AF+SAM), and this chance of winning is higher than 50% when troop size exceeded 30. There is also a significant linear regression between weight win(main group and branch group)and troop number , but chance of weight win in some troops is higher than 90% when troop size is only between 20 to 30. Approach, line-up, displace and be-displaced have significant correlation with troop size type. Large troops displayed higher displace (65%), line-up (6%) and approach (28%) than other type of troops, and small troop were easily displaced by other type of troops (60%). Aggressive behavior also has significant correlation with mating season significantly; troops of Formosan macaques display more aggressive behavior in mating season (70%) than in non-mating season (41%). Troops of Formosan macaques display higher approach(33%) and displace (93%) when troops encounter with all male troop than with bisexual troop. Inter-group dominance relationships exist among main group and branch group which newly split of Formosan macaques. But there is uncertain inter-group dominance relationships between main group and branch group which split early for the difference of maternal dominance hierarchies, variation of troop numbers, and the character of central males. Adult male and female Formosan macaques adopt different strategy in inter-group encounter. Adult female Formosan macaques participated (8.62%, n=8) and displayed aggressive behavior (3.66%, n=8) in more food-related encounter than in non-food-related encounter, so female resource defense hypothesis is supported. Adult male Formosan macaques display higher aggressive behavior (7.92%, n=23) significantly than adult female and sub-adult male in inter-group encounter, and the target of aggression is higher for males than for females. Adult and sub-adult male Formosan macaques display higher aggressive behavior in mating season significantly than in non-mating season. So male mate defense hypothesis is also supported. This study provides support for the male resource defense hypothesis. Adult male Formosan macaques would defend food resource directly and indirectly. Besides, frequencies of participation and aggression in low ranking adult male Formosan macaques are higher than high ranking ones to exchange mating opportunity.