人類食物對柴山台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)取食模式之影響

外文標題: 
The Impact of Human Food on Feeding Patterns of Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Mt. Chai
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學 野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
蘇秀慧
出版年份: 
2008年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

柴山自1989年部份開放以後,便成為人類休閒活動的去處,人類的餵食與殘留的食物殘渣和垃圾,已經變成猴群取用的重要資源。相對於自然食物,人類所提供的食物的能量與營養價值可能較高,是獼猴競爭食用的資源,亦可能對其活動造成影響。本研究觀察特定猴群中不同位階個體獲取人類食物的方式與時間,以探討人類食物對獼猴覓食活動的影響。自2007年3月至6月,於柴山自然公園內全天觀察特定猴群中不同位階共六隻雌性個體的行為。記錄猴隻獲取人類食物的方式以及進行各項行為所花費的時間。結果顯示,不同位階個體花費在取食自然食物與人類食物的時間有顯著差異。高位階個體較低位階個體花費較多的時間取食人類食物 (33.66%),而低位階個體比高位階個體花費較多的時間在自然食物上(75.14%)。在獲取人類食物的不同方式中,撿拾行為花費的時間最高且較常在休息站周遭出現;而接受餵食則是在天然棲地中。不同位階個體花費在撿拾的時間有顯著差異,推測是因為位階優勢影響不同位階個體的活動地點所導致。餵食與搶奪行為上並無顯著差異,低位階個體與一隻較年輕的高位階個體未曾出現過搶奪人類食物的行為。 觀察對象平日與假日取食人類食物的時間並沒有顯著差異(平日28.41%、假日30.21%),但在假日時記錄到的獼猴接受餵食的時間顯著高於非假日時。在5、6月荔枝與榕屬植物結果時,猴群會改變活動範圍且增加了取食自然食物的時間。人類食物資源影響獼猴的覓食活動與活動區域,針對柴山猴群之經營管理,建議應減少人類聚集地週遭的食物殘渣與加強餵食的管理。

外文摘要: 

Provisioning and garbage left by human gradually became an important food source for macaque groups at Mt. Chai since partially opened up to the public in 1989. Consuming human foods by the macaque, which may contain higher energy and nutrition value than natural food, may impact their feeding activities. We conducted behavior observations on a specific macaque group at Mt. Chai to investigate feeding patterns of female macaques on human foods. From March to June 2007, data on feeding behavior and time spent on various types of human foods were collected from 6 adult females with different social ranks for 48 days. The results showed that the high-ranked spent more time on human food than the low-ranked. Regarding ways of obtaining human food, the macaque spent the highest proportion of time on actively searching for and picking up human food to consume. Picking-up behavior usually occurs around the rest area for tourist, however, provisioning frequently occurs in the native habitat. There was significant difference in time spent on picking up human foods in females with different social ranks. No difference was found on time spent provisioned food, and robbing food from tourists among these females. The low-ranked were not observed to rob food from tourists. The total time spent on human food by the focal animals collected on weekends and holidays was not different from that collected during weekdays. However, the macaques spent more time on provisioned food on holidays than that spent on weekdays. Fruiting of litchi and Ficus trees in May and June affected the activity range of the monkey group, and increased their feeding time on natural food. In conclusion, consuming human food impacted feeding activities and activity range of macaques at Mt. Chai. I, therefore, suggest that garbage around the pavilion must be removed and provisioning must be controlled, in order to reduce the spatial proximity between human and non-human primates at Mt. Chai.