台灣獼猴對墾丁地區茄苳種子之分布模式與命運的影響

外文標題: 
Seed Spatial Distribution and Post-dispersal Fate of Bischofia javanica Dispersed by Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Kenting
校院系所: 
屏東科技大學 野生動物保育研究所
指導教授: 
蘇秀慧
林宜靜
出版年份: 
2010年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

靈長類動物的種子傳播對森林樹種的更新扮演著重要角色,傳播者的食物處理方式,以及所形成的種子空間分布模式,將影響種子命運,進而影響森林的更新。本研究評估台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)對茄苳(Bischofia javanica)的傳播效益,針對經獼猴利用後的種子進行種子發芽試驗,以得知獼猴對種子的各項處理是否影響種子的發芽能力,並藉由實際追蹤猴群所得的移動路線與活動項目,以及餵食圈養獼猴所測得種子在消化道中的滯留時間,而推估出獼猴傳播種子的距離和傳播後種子分布的密度。 結果顯示,台灣獼猴的消化道與排遺所提供的環境是可以促進茄苳種子發芽的,種子經歷頰囊的處理後,比起未經獼猴處理的種子亦具有較高的發芽率。被獼猴吞下的茄苳種子,經獼猴的移動與消化道處理後排出,而被傳播離開母樹,平均傳播距離為258.7公尺,最遠可達662.5公尺。在獼猴移動和休息間,所吐出的茄苳種子呈現非叢聚的分布狀態,且密度顯著低於母樹樹冠下未經傳播的種子,而睡覺地點排遺所形成的種子密度則顯著高於母樹樹冠下的。台灣獼猴食用茄苳果實,對其種子的處理方式讓種子有較高的發芽能力,且將種子帶離母樹,而在白天活動時吐出的種子形成較低的種子密度。因此,台灣獼猴為具有高效益的種子傳播者。

外文摘要: 

Seed dispersal is an essential ecological process for forest regeneration Especially, seed dispersal by primates has been shown to increase seed survival and germination, thus critically impacting subsequent seedling establishment. In this study, I evaluated the effectiveness of Taiwanese macaque(Macaca cyclopis) as a seed disperser of Bischofia javanica in the Kenting area. Gut retention time and germination rates of digested seeds were estimated by captive macaque individuals. Movement patterns and foraging behavior of Taiwanese macaque was studied. I estimated seed dispersal distance and spatial distribution generated by Taiwanese macaques. The results suggest that germination rates of seeds handled by Taiwanese macaques, either in their digestive tracts, feces, or cheek-pouch, are significant higher than seeds without macaque’s handling. The average dispersal distance is 258.7 m, and the maximum distance is 662.5 m. However, longer gut retention time is not necessary leading to longer dispersal distance, since Taiwanese macaque has a winding traveling route. Macaques can scatter seeds during traveling and resting, which were deposited in a lower density compared to that under the tree crown of parent trees. Seeds are clumped at their sleeping sites, since they reuse several high-coral reefs as the sleeping sites. This study suggest that seed dispersal resulted by Taiwanese macaques could enhance germination of seeds, disperse seeds away from parent trees, and deposit seeds into variable density. Therefore, Taiwanese macaque is an effective seed disperser for B. javanica.