由於生態平衡與自然保育是人類與自然環境關係最密切的一環，故推展環境教育應從自然生態保育的概念教學及學習開始著手，培養環境的覺知與敏感度。然而目前環境教育工作要能有效的掌握學童認知程度、學習成就，及教師在環境教育方面的教學成效，都需要客觀、有效的評量工具。 本研究旨在編製國小中、高年級自然生態保育概念標準化評量表，以供國小教師進行自然生態保育概念相關課程教學時的學習診斷，成就評定及教學改進之參考。 首先分析國內、外相關文獻及課程，並參酌專家概念圖，編製成半開放式問卷，配合半結構式晤談，探討學童已知概念及未知概念。經分析上述結果，編製預試題本，經資深教師、環境教育專家審題。再經兩次預試，包括試題分析、選提及試題修改，最後編製成正式評量表。最後進行大規模測驗，考驗其信度、效度並建立自然生態保育概念認知常模、衍生分數對照表及編寫指導手冊。 研究成果摘要如下：國小中、高年級已知概念分別有13、20個，未具有之概念分別為2、1個。迷思概念之晤談分析中，中、高年級學童自然生態保育迷思概念分別為20、17個，其中中、高年級學童均有之迷思概念有12個。本研究編製成中年級自然生態保育概念標準化評量表共二十題，試題難度介於.28∼.80，鑑別度介於.29∼.50，重測信度為.620；高年級試題共二十題，試題難度介於.21∼.80，鑑別度介於.26∼.79，重測信度為.774，並以最近一次評量名次為效標，進行評量表之得分與在校評量名次之關連性，求得中、高年級之效標關連效度分別為.600及.559，且具有良好之內容效度。研究中發現：學童獲得自然生態保育概念主要源自學校師長及課外書籍。而學校中主要源自於自然老師與社會老師。在評量表現上，則以家長學歷及最近一次評量名次較優者，表現較好。
Since man and nature are best related by ecological balance and nature conservation, therefore, the promotion of environmental education should start with the conceptual teaching and learning of nature conservation as well as the sensitivity and understanding of the environment. However, it calls for objective, effective evaluation tools to size up the recognition of students, learning accomplishment and teaching effectiveness of teachers in the field of environmental education. The concepts of conservation for the students in elementary school were collected and analyzed in the research. The semi-opened-ended questionnaire of conversation concepts was built up based on “conservation concepts mapping” provided by Prof. Lin, M.R. in 1994. After the semi-open-ended questionnaire and interview of students’ misconception, a test set of the conservation conceptions was developed. After the standardization of the test set, a standardized test set suitable for the middle- and high-grade elementary students was built up. At last, the tests were given on a large scale to examine the reliability and validity, to build up the cognition norm of conversation concepts, to derive the scoring tables and to compile the instruction manuals. The abstract of the study is as follows: The numbers of known concept by the middle- and high-grade elementary students are 13, and 20 respectively and the numbers of unknown concept are 2, and 1 respectively. From the semi-structured clinical interview, it was shown that the misconception number of the conservation for the middle- and high- grade students is 20 and 14. In this study the question numbers in the standardized evaluation table of conservation concept compiled for the middle-grade students is 20, the passing percentages are between .28 and .80, the indices of discrimination are between .29 and .50 the retest reliability is .620. The question numbers for the high-grade students is 20, the passing percentages are between .21 and .80, the indices of discrimination are between .26 and .79 the retest reliability is .774. Both sets of questions have a good content validity. Furthermore, the major sources from which students get their conservation knowledge are teacher and extracurricular books. The major sources in school are natural science teachers and social science teachers.