鉤端螺旋體症是重要的人畜共通傳染病之一，而犬鉤端螺旋體症在世界各地均盛行。犬感染鉤端螺旋體症的血清群，除了常見的Canicola及 Icterohaemorrhagiae以外，近來發現有新的血清群盛行的趨勢，如: Grippotyphosa及Pomona。台灣從1977年之後20年，未見台灣田間的犬鉤端螺旋體症感染的調查，直到1997年本實驗室曾對軍犬進行血清抗體檢測，但軍犬的管制及集中飼養，可能無法反映台灣田間犬隻感染的情況。為了解台灣目前的犬鉤端螺旋體症的盛行率，進行本次的調查研究。首先調查台灣地區就診犬之鉤端螺旋體的尿液帶原及血清抗體呈陽性的情況。從2003年2月到10月，自各地獸醫診所收集313個犬血液，同時請獸醫師與畜主填寫問巻。血清抗體的顯微凝集試驗 (microscopic agglutination test) 的結果，總血清抗體盛行率23.0% (72 / 313)。尿液樣本的培養及聚合酶鏈反應 (polymerase chain reaction) 偵測鉤端螺旋體存在，結果皆呈陰性。各別的鉤端螺旋體血清群抗體陽性率，由高而低排列，如下：Canicola 16.0%，Icterohaemorrhagiae 15.7%，Shermani 2.6%，Pyrogenes 1.3%，Bataviae 1.0%，Pomona 0.3%，Javanica 0.3%，Tarassovi 0.3% 及Australis 0.3%。配對問巻分析，發現一年內曾施打疫苗的陽性就診犬明顯多於施打超過一年或未疫苗者 (P
Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis. Canine leptospirosis occurred worldwidely. The new identified serogroups of canine leptospirosis, except Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, were found, like Grippotyphosa and Pomona. The survey of canine leptospirosis never done after 1977. Until 1997, the serological survey of military guard dogs was not undertaken. Because the different breeding of military guard dogs, it wouldn’t reflect the infection of dogs in Taiwan. The main objective of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among dogs in Taiwan. We investigated the leptospiremia prevalence and seroprevalence among domestic dogs from veterinary clinics in Taiwan. Urine and serum specimens were collected from 313 dogs visiting clinics from February to October 2003. Risk factors associated with leptospiral infection were collected at the time of serum collection through a structure questionnaire. Twenty-three percentages of dogs tested for Leptospira antibodies by microscopic agglutination test were found to be positive. Examination of urine samples by culture and polymerase chain reaction did not detect any leptospiral carriers. The prevalence of individual serovars was Leptospira Canicola 16.0 %, L. Icterohaemorrhagiae 15.7 %, L. Shermani 2.6 %, L. Pyrogenes 1.3 %, L. Bataviae 1.0 %, L. Pomona 0.3 %, L. Javanica 0.3 %, L. Tarassovi 0.3 % and L. Australis 0.3 %. According to information collected through the questionnaire, seropositive dogs were significantly associated with recent (≦ 1 year) vaccination (P ＜ 0.05). It is concluded that the most dogs showing leptospiral antibodies in Taiwan do so as the result of vaccination. Then we investigated the seroprevalence among stray dogs from northern Taiwan. Sera were collected from 231 dogs in animal shelters of northern Taiwan from Feb to May 2004. The overall seropositive rate is 44.2% and the prevalence of individual serogroups was L. Shermani 26.4%, L. Canicola 11.7%, L. Icterohaemorrhagiae 7.4%, L. Australis 6.9%, L. Javanica 5.6%, L. Pyrogenes 5.2%, L. Grippotyphosa 3.9%, L. Bataviae 3.5%, L. Tarassovi 1.7%, L. Autumnalis 1.3%, L. Lyme 1.3%, and L. Pyogenes 0.4%. It shows the seropositive rate in stray dogs is higher than attended dogs, and the distribution of each serogroup between domestic dogs and stray dogs is different. In Taiwan, the major serogroups of leptospirosis in domestic dogs were Shermani and inactivated bacterins, Canicola and Icteroheamorrhagiae. The major serogroups of leptospirosis in stray dogs were Shermani, Canicola, and Icteroheamorrhagiae. Australis, Bataviae, Javanica, Pyrogenes and Tarassovi found among both domestic and stray dogs. Serogroup Pomona only found in domestic dogs. And we found serogroup Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Lyme and Pyogenes in stray dogs. Serogroup Grippotyphosa only found in stray dogs.