This thesis aims to account for how Taiwanese society’s concern for dogs has become complicated. In order to trace the origins of the ways our society deals with dogs, I select three significant human-dogs relationships for special focus, discussing each in respective chapters. Chapter Two explores the change of human-dogs relationship under the modern idea and institution of hygiene, especially how the policy on rabies forms the infrastructure for modern nation-state’s governance of dogs. This period ranges from Japan’s colonization of Taiwan at 1895 to the Sino-Japanese War during the 1930s. Chapter Three reveals the ideological and social construction of evaluation and appreciation of purebred dogs, along with the establishment of the market for artificial propagation, exchange, and sales of dogs. This process follows the Sino-Japanese War in the 1930s, during which the significance of military dogs is raised, and ends in the 1980s when the dogs market fails in its business speculation. Chapter Four portrays the relation between stray-dogs and rescue communities, focusing on the action of feeding stray animals. The action of rescuing stray-dogs implies that, from 1982 to this day, there emerges the society’s sympathy for dogs and its reflection on its attitudes toward animals. Following an account of the complication of ideas about dogs in Taiwan society, this thesis in its conclusion goes further and points out the limits to the ways of constructing an understanding of dogs, classifications, positioning dogs by imposing identities, and in turn re-construction of people’s understanding of them.