從犬隻預防針到萬物政治-對台灣人狗關係的STS式考察

外文標題: 
From Canine Vaccination to Cosmopolitics: An STS Exploration of Human-Dog Relationship in Taiwan
校院系所: 
國立清華大學 歷史研究所
指導教授: 
傅大為
出版年份: 
2008年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

台灣越來越多人豢養寵物,其中以狗為最大宗。要成為一個「標準飼主」,從獸醫、媒體、養狗社群等各方面都產出了非常多的知識需要去學習,而其中定期施打犬隻預防針則是最基本的一環。按照一般的規定,一隻狗一生要接受相當頻繁次數的預防針接種,雖然目的是維持犬隻的健康與防治傳染病的發生,但漸漸地卻有關於預防針的風險、副作用等爭議發生。而在台灣,寵物獸醫發展的歷史與醫病關係也可能影響到預防針技術網絡的穩定,其中也牽涉飼主與狗的關係、藥廠與食品公司扮演的角色。 另一方面,除了家犬外,在台灣一般人也會在街道上接觸到野狗,或是在校園中的校犬。這三種狗分別有著自己故事,而透過敘述牠們的故事,可以發現狗其實並非想像中為一個同質的集體,而是充滿著異質性。而在屬於牠們的故事中,也展現著或多或少的能動性(agency):牠們不僅只是作為人狗關係中被動的一方,也會主動地對人類等其他行動者產生影響。 本文以行動者網絡理論(Actor Network Theory, 簡稱ANT)作為主要的研究取徑,除了可以同時將人與非人在故事中同時展現出他們的力量,另一方面也可以打破傳統對於動物議題探討中,文化╱自然、社會╱ 科學等的二分與隨之產生的對立。筆者並用一章的篇幅更加深入的探討科技與社會(Science, Technology and Society, 簡稱STS)式的考察,將可以為動物研究帶來甚麼樣的新思維,同時,動物研究的主題也可以進一步談出STS研究中的萬物政治 (cosmopolitics),並期待可為台灣野狗問題提出更有力的政策方針。

外文摘要: 

Owning a dog has become more and more common in contemporary Taiwanese household. To become a “standard owner,” one has to acquire a whole pack of knowledge from veterinarians, the media, and dog-loving communities, among which regular vaccination program is the most basic routine. According to the general regulation, dogs have to go through quite a significant amount of vaccination during their life span. Although the purpose of regular vaccination is to maintain dogs’ health and to prevent outbreaks of contagious diseases, the risks and side effects of canine vaccination has gradually arouse controversy. In Taiwan, the development and doctor-patient relationship of small animal veterinarian could also affect the stability of the technical network of canine vaccination, which also involves other actants such as the human-dog relationship, pharmaceutical companies and dog food companies. Beside pet dogs, we can also easily encounter street dogs or school dogs on campus in Taiwan. These three kinds of dogs have their own story to tell, and by telling their stories, we will find that dogs are not a homogeneous collective, but full of heterogeneity. In their stories, they can unveil their agency more or less: they do not merely play a passive part in human-dog relationship, but can actively influence other actors like human being. This paper uses Actor Network Theory as the main approach, since it can not only show the strength of humans as well as non-humans in the story to tell, but also transcend the dichotomy and opposition that follows between culture/nature, society/science and etc. in traditional animal-centered discourses. I will further discuss on the one hand the new ways of thinking STS (Science, Technology and Society) studies can bring for animal studies, and on the other hand, how the theme of animal studies can provoke the idea of cosmopolitics, so that I can generate helpful policy-making suggestions for the street dog problem in Taiwan.