動物保護理論與實踐-以我國動物保護法為觀察對象

外文標題: 
The Theory and Practice of Animal Protection- An Observation of R.O.C. Animal Protection Law
校院系所: 
國立台北大學 法律學系一般生組
指導教授: 
莊世同
出版年份: 
2010年
主題類別: 
摘要: 

雖然關懷動物的慈悲思想存在於在各個文化中,但真正對近代動物保護議題及動物保護運動發生影響的則是西方歐洲社會在十八至十九世紀期間,逐漸出現的動物保護理論們;在複雜又繁多的的動物保護理論中,主要可以大略地區分為動物權利理論、動物福利理論,與兼容並蓄兩者的新福利理論;在動物權利理論與動物福利理論間,平等和悲憫恰恰就是兩者間最根本的不同,大致上來說,動物福利理論對動物的態度是出於對動物的悲憫,在看待動物的地位上,則是較動物權利理論保守,堅守人類中心的想法;反之,動物權利理論則是顯得激進,它明確的挑戰「人類崇高」這樣的文化根基觀點,認為萬物平等,動物在道德上和法律上都應享有某種程度的權利,至少是包括免於受傷害與殺戮的權利。而動物保護又可分為野生動物與非野生動物,本文中為避免討論範圍過大,將討論範圍限於非野生動物,藉由文獻整理分析法,觀察動物保護理論的源起、背後文化、宗教等背景,進而掌握動物保護理論的內容,並在動物權利理論與動物福利理論內各有不同見解的情形下,試圖釐清動物保護理論間的差異。 在確認過動物保護理論的興起背景、思想與內容後,便將觀察重點放在動物保護理論的實踐,不論是在動物保護運動的運作上,或是推動動物保護相關法規範的成果上,動物權利理論和動物福利理論都有其成功和必須面對的困境,舉例來說,動物福利理論雖成功的為官方所接受,並成為各國訂定動物保護相關法規範時的立論依據,但仍然無法根除動物悲慘的生活,並受到動物權利理論支持者的攻擊,即使在被訂定為法規範,動物福利理論保護的客體是人類還是動物,依舊沒有定論;反觀動物權利理論在實踐上,則是因為其過於激進,且直接地挑戰人類崇高的文化根基觀點,而不易受到大眾的接受,在欠缺大眾接受的情形下,理論要發揮其影響力便顯得困難;其次,數據顯示,動物權利理論支持者在運動上激進的手段,使社會中大多數的人雖然支持動物保護議題,但卻對動物保護運動反感,也對動物權利議題持保留及反對的意見。 在討論過動物保護理論的實踐後,本文將重心放在對動物保護影響最大的「動物保護法規範」上,以中外比較法觀察因為欠缺背景與歷史文化,而遭到抨擊的我國動物保護法;我國在跟隨世界潮流訂定動物保護法後,卻遭相關研究者批評動物保護成效不彰,許多學者認為這是因為我國沒有欠缺那段動物保護理論形成時的過程,亦即我國欠缺動物保護的相關歷史文化背景,也欠缺普遍道德共識的關係使然;因此,本文也會觀察我國固有的動物保護傳統思想與西方動物保護理論間的不同,還有動物保護理論傳入我國後所產生的影響。 最後,以法制研究方法,透過政府公佈資訊及相關期刊觀察,動物保護法在我國的實踐,並針對筆者觀察到的動物保護法制缺失提出修法意見及建議。

外文摘要: 

Although the concern animal's mercy exists in each culture, but truly occurs to the modern times animal protection subject and the animal protection movement the influence is starting from the Western Europe society in 18 to the 19th century period, gradually appears animal protection theories; In the complex many animal protection theorys, mainly may seize territory the discrimination greatly for the animal right theory, the animal welfare theory, and new welfarism theory. But the animal protection may include the wild animal and the non-wild animal, in this article for avoids discussing the scope oversized, will discuss the scope to be restricted in the non-wild animal, because of the literature reorganization analytic method, the observation animal protection theory source will get up, behind backgrounds and so on culture, religion, then the grasping animal protection theory content, and will have under respectively the different opinion situation in the animal right theory and the animal welfare theory, will attempt to clear the difference between animal protection theories. After had confirmed the animal protection theory’s background, and the thought and the content, then the observe point will places on the practice of the animal protection theory, no matter the animal protection theory is, perhaps in the impetus animal protection correlation method standard achievement, the animal right theory and the animal welfare theory both have the difficult position which they have to face. After has discussed the animal protection theory’s practice, this article places the center of gravity to the animal protection law, which truly effect the living situation of animals, but after we have our own animal protection law, many scholars thought this is when our country has not been short of that section of animal protection theory forms the process, i.e. our country is short of the animal protection the related history cultural context, also is short of the universal moral mutual recognition the relations to make to cause to so; Therefore, this article also can observe our country inherent animal protection tradition thought and the difference with West animal protection theory, after but also has the animal protection theory to spread to the influence which our country produces. Finally, by the legal system research technique, the penetration government announces the information and the related periodical observation, the animal protection method in our country's practice, the author try to propose repairs the law opinions and the suggestions.